To interpret the banding pattern of a DNA fingerprint one must determine the order of its bases. The DNA fragments are separated according to the lengths of the DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis (usually). PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is used to study genes. PCR makes many copies of the DNA. PCR can be used in crime investigation because the DNA left on a crime scene needs to be copied many times so they can compare it to a suspects DNA. Clone: a member of genetically identical cells produced from one cell. Genetic engineering: increased the growth of biotechnology that has changed the way we interact with the living world. The Human Genome Project is an ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence.Transgenic organisms have genes from other species. They often are easy to grow and transgenic bacteria can produce important and useful substances for health and industry. Humans that need insulin because of their diabetes are treated with pure human insulin produced by human genes inserted into bacteria.