An organism whose genome has been genetically modified by the introduction of novel DNA is a transgenic organism. An example of a transgenic organism is a tobacco plant with jellyfish GLO gene. An unusual piece of genetic engineering that involved luminescent jellyfish and tobacco plants revealed calcium in biological rhythms. The calcium should regulate many intercellular tasks, such as glucose metabolism, muscle contraction and ion movements in the brain. When things go wrong in intercellular events a lot of things could go wrong, causing the eeriness of the tobacco plant.
In diffusion, particles are being moved from a high concentration to a low concentration. As we experienced in class with the trash bag, particles in a solution are in continuous motion, but not all particles can get through to the other side. Because of the constant and random movement, the cell does not require the use of energy. Example of diffusion: Perfume bottle, the molecules move around from a high concentration to a low concentration. In Osmosis, water is being moved across a selectively permeable membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration, this process does not require energy. Example of osmosis: In a solution with salt (more concentrated) and water (less concentrated), the salt particles will move from a high concentration to a low concentration, the particles will even out between the water and the salt particles. However, in Active Transport, energy and a membrane protein is required and the particles go from a low concentration to a high concentration. Example of active transport: Sodium ions moving across a cell membrane. Protein membrane channels make it easier for certain particles to move across the membrane. Facilitated diffusion is like a faster rate of diffusion, except a protein membrane is required. In facilitated diffusion, specific particles are moved across cell membranes through protein channels, cell energy is not required. In the experiment in class with the membrane, glucose and water, the glucose moved through the membrane.
Diffusion is when molecules are being moved across the membrane, from a high concentration to a low concentration. Example: Perfume bottle, the molecules move around from a high concentration to a low concentration. Osmosis is when water is being moved from a high concentration to a low concentration. Example: Water in plants, the water moves from a high concentration then sinks into the ground to a low concentration. Active transport goes from a low concentration to a high concentration using energy. Example: reabsorption of glucose... Facilitated diffusion is when molecules pass through a protein. Example: Red blood cells or real life example of facilitated diffusion (A ball being passed back and forth.)
All cells have DNA, a cell membrane, ribosomes and cytoplasm. Eukaryotic cells do contain a nucleus, but prokaryotic cells does not. Prokaryotic cells are only bacteria. Prokaryotic cells are small, but eukaryotic cells are larger. Eukaryotic cells are anything besides bacteria. The endosymbiotic theory states that certain organelles started as free-living bacteria, that were taken inside another cell. This could be true, since prokaryotes are ONLY bacteria, and prokaryotes are smaller than eukaryotes. Eukaryotes could possibly be composed of prokaryotes.
Diffusion is when molecules are moved across the membrane from a high concentration to a low concentration. Osmosis is when water moves from a high concentration to a low concentration. In ATP, to gain energy a phosphate is stored, to release energy a phosphate is given away. Photosynthesis occurs in plants, and the energy comes from sunlight. The equation for photosynthesis is:
6H2O+6CO2-----> C6H12O6+6O2. This tells you that plants need water + carbon dioxide + sunlight to survive, and plants produce glucose and oxygen.
The cellular respiration equation is the opposite, because we breathe out carbon dioxide, our body's produce water and our body produces energy from our materials inside our body. However, we need oxygen, and glucose.
Cellular respiration equation: C6H12O6+6O2------>6CO2+6H2O+36ATP
Alcoholic Fermentation is performed most commonly by yeast. Lactic Acid Fermentation occurs in muscles. The reason your muscles are sore after you work out, is because of the lactic acid.
The phases of Mitosis are: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telephase. During Interphase, cell grows and the DNA is replicated. The DNA must be replicated before anything else can take place. In Prophase, the sister chromatids pair up. The chromatids are together. During Metaphase, the chromosomes line up at the center. Since this is Mitosis they line up horizontally. If this were Meiosis they chromosomes would line up vertically. During Anaphase the sister chromatids are pulled apart. During telephase you have two new cells.
All cells have DNA, a cell membrane, Ribosomes, and cytoplasm. The reasoning behind this is because the membrane lets things in and out of the cell, the ribosomes make proteins and the cell must have proteins. The cytoplasm contains all the cell organelles. The DNA contains all the genetic coding and controls the functions of the organism. The Golgi apparatus sorts and packages the proteins, that the ribosomes produce. The vacuole stores waste material, after everything has been done. The lysosomes disposes all the waste. The endoplasmic reticulum moves everything around. The chloroplasts make food for the cell. The nucleus, the largest organelle in the cell, controls everything, including the DNA. The cell wall protects the cell, which is why it is on the outside of the cell. Mitochondria produces energy for the cell, the cell needs energy so that it can move around.