On a pedigree the squares represent the males and the circles represent the females. If the shape is colored then that person has whatever trait is being shown. Since the genotypes of males are "XY" they would inherit the sex-linked recessive trait, because they would only inherit a Y from their father. In a girl it would be different because she would have two X's, one from mom and one from dad, the genotype of a girl is "XX". She would have to inherit a bad x from mom and dad to have the trait. If the father has the sex-linked recessive trait then his son will also have it because he only has one Y to give to the offspring. With his daughter it would be different, because he would pass down an X, assuming the X from the mother is a good X, then the child wouldn't inherit the trait, since the trait is recessive.
Interphase: The cell is just sitting there
Prophase: Spindle forms
Metaphase: Chromosomes line up at the center
Anaphase: Chromatids separate
Telophase: Two separate nuclear envelopes are formed, two new cells are formed
Cells have to be a "perfect" size. They can't be too big or too small. If the cell is too big, it can't move nutrients efficiently. If it's too small, it can;t hold all of the genetic materials and organelles.
Cancer can be caused by many things such as, smoking, excessive exposure to radiation, drinking, or it could be passed down genetically (have higher risk). Scientists are not sure exactly what cyclins do in the cell, but when they took a sample of cytoplasm out of a cell that was in the stages of mitosis and inserted it into a cell that wasn't in mitosis, the cell started doing mitosis. When they studied the cytoplasms they concluded that cyclins regulate the timing in which the cells undergo mitosis. Cells also have "sensors" in them that when they are surrounded by other cells they stop dividing. However, in cancer cells the cells grow and divide uncontrollably. Which can cause a tumor (a mass of cells). When a person has a tumor masses of that tumor can break off and the cancer can spread. The only way to get rid of cancer (that we know of) is to have surgery, radiation, or chemotherapy. The only problem is chemo can make you hair fall out, radiation can damage good cells while they are damaging the bad cells. Example: My grandmother had pancreatic cancer, and she had surgery. A few months after her surgery she had radiation. The doctors said her cancer was in the early stage so they were able to get all of it. The radiation could have damaged her good cells as well as bad cells, but we do not know for sure. While having the surgery they took her spleen out, which causes her to have a weak immune system. However, she is now very healthy. (-:
(Sorry so long!)
In the nucleus mRNA goes from the nucleus to the ribosomes. The nucleus and the ribosomes work together to perform protein synthesis. In plant cells the mitochondria and the cytoplasm work together to provide energy for the cell. Golgi structures and packages proteins, and the ribosomes do protein synthesis. The vacuoles also help the golgi apparatus because they store the proteins. The lysosomes helps all the cells because it breaks down lipids, carbs and proteins so that it can work throughout the rest of the cell. These organelles are all working together.
During the ATP cycle to release energy you take a phosphate away, making you have ADP instead of ATP. To store energy you add a phosphate making you have ATP. Plants perform photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants release oxygen and glucose. The formula for photosynthesis is 6O2+6cH12O6 -> sunlight 6CO2+H2O .... The reactants are the oxygen and glucose, while the Carbon dioxide, sunlight and water are the products. Organisms that do cellular respiration use the reactants of photosynthesis. The cellular respiration formula is 6CO2+H2O->6O2+6cH12O6+36ATP. The reactants being carbon dioxide and water, the products being oxygen, glucose and energy. We breathe out carbon dioxide, while plants give off oxygen which we need to survive. That's why it's important to take care of plants so we will have what we need to survive. Cellular Respiration occurs in the mitochondria of the cell. Photosynthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Enzymes like to be a specific temperature. The enzymes in photosynthesis wants the temperatures to be specific, not too hot and not too cold. If the light intensity is too high, or too low the plants won't function properly. Anaerobic respiration doesn't require oxygen, while aerobic does require oxygen. Lactic acid fermentation occurs in our muscles, while alcoholic fermentation is used to make alcohol and is performed by yeast and other microorganisms. Cellular respiration and photosynthesis are connected because the chemical equations are reversed. Cellular respiration uses the reactants of photosynthesis as its products and photosynthesis uses the products of cellular respiration as its reactants. One can't work without the other. We need oxygen which plants give off, while we breathe out carbon dioxide which
Cells carry out all of the functions necessary to survive. The organelles in the cells help them to perform these functions. Prokaryotic cells are usually unicellular and eukaryote cells are multicellular. Animal cells do not have a cell wall. Plant cells have chloroplasts and animal cells do not. The endosymbiotic theory states that eukaryotic cells formed when prokaryotic organisms "combined" with them.
All polygenic traits form a bell curve. (Example of Polygenic Trait: height *A person that is average height would be graphed in the middle of the curve. A person that is way shorter or way taller than the average person would be at the bottom of the curve.*) Directional Selection: takes place when organisms at one end of the curve has a lower or a higher fitness than the organisms in the middle. It's better to be at either end of the curve, than at the middle. In Stabilizing Selection it's better to be in the middle of the curve, than at either end of the curve. An organism has higher fitness at the middle of the curve. In Disruptive Selection it's better to be at any end of the curve than in the middle of curve.
To interpret the banding pattern of a DNA fingerprint one must determine the order of its bases. The DNA fragments are separated according to the lengths of the DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis (usually). PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) is used to study genes. PCR makes many copies of the DNA. PCR can be used in crime investigation because the DNA left on a crime scene needs to be copied many times so they can compare it to a suspects DNA. Clone: a member of genetically identical cells produced from one cell. Genetic engineering: increased the growth of biotechnology that has changed the way we interact with the living world. The Human Genome Project is an ongoing effort to analyze the human DNA sequence.Transgenic organisms have genes from other species. They often are easy to grow and transgenic bacteria can produce important and useful substances for health and industry. Humans that need insulin because of their diabetes are treated with pure human insulin produced by human genes inserted into bacteria.
Genotype: genetic make-up
Phenotype: physical characteristic you can see
Homozygous: 2 of the same alleles
Heterozygous: 2 different alleles
Gene: A part of your DNA that tells what trait will be recessive, dominant or not present.
Allele: different forms of a gene
Dominant: Always take the dominant form of the trait (dominant rules over recessive)
Recessive: Only shows up when dominant is not present
To complete a monohybrid genetic cross you have to make a key first, then put both parents genotypes & work the punnett square.Write the "%" of of genotype (& phenotypes) that the offspring will have.
You also have to answer the question that is given.
A dihybrid cross contains more than one trait that you're trying to find. You work the punnett square the same except you have a larger key and larger square.
In DNA replication the molecules of the DNA separates into two separate strands. Then complementary strands are produced they match up A-T & C-G. mRNA comes to the DNA and changes the DNA into RNA. The rRNA causes the proteins to form, then the tRNA matches the proteins (codons) and it's then known as an amino acid. I understand that mitosis is a part of cell division and the cell nucleus divides. Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells. Meiosis produces four different cells. None of the cells are the same. (Meiosis produces gametes).