In this picture, RNA Polymerase came in and transcribed the DNA into an RNA strand (each base was paired up complimentary.)
After the RNA strand is made a 5' GTP cap is added, and a poly-a-tail is added to the other end... The bases are paired up and read as codons (3 bases).
The ribosome EPA, works from A to E. The ribosome starts at the codon "AUG" and works down from there to a stop Codon (UAA, UAG, UGA), and proteins are made.
TRNA changes the codons to proteins and then a bond is formed between the other protein and the trna is gone. the proteins are released into the cell.
1. Helicase is an enzymes used in DNA replication, it opens the helix.... topoisomerase regulates the winding and unwinding of the DNA
SSBP (Single Stranding Binding Protein) keeps the helix open
2.Primase comes in and forms RNA primers
3. DNA 3, synthesizes DNA & 2 phosphates come off and joins the phosphate to sugar
4. DNA 1, replaces RNA primers with DNA
5.Ligase links the Okazaki fragments together
The leading strand can replicate straight down. The lagging strand has to pick up a fragment then replicate, it has to stop, while the leading strand can go on continuously. The lagging strand has Okazaki fragments which has to be put together by ligase. They face in opposite directions.
Introduction to DNA Questions
1. Explain the transformation experiment conducted by Frederick Griffith. What did the results
of the experiment suggest?
Bacteria could give other bacteria hereditable (transformation)
2. Explain how the work of Avery, McCarty, and McLeod expanded on the work done by
Griffith. What did the results of their experiment suggest?
They figured out that DNA was a transforming agent
3. Explain the experiment conducted by Hershey and Chase. How did the results of their
experiment demonstrate that DNA was the genetic material of bacteriophages?
It helped to confirm that DNA was genetic material, showed that viruses inserts its DNA into a host cell
4. What is important about the work done on DNA by Erwin Chargaff?
He discovered that there were bases in DNA
5. Explain how the work done by Rosalind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins helped inform Watson
and Crick’s model of the structure of DNA.
They discovered the structure of DNA
6. Briefly diagram the double helix structure of DNA. Include:
a. At least one A,T,C,G per strand.
b. Labeled phosphates, deoxyribose, phosphodiester bonds, and the correct number of
hydrogen bonds per base pair.
c. Make sure to show the anti-parallel orientation of both strands.
*Put 1 cm of solvent in a 50 mL graduated cylinder
*Cut a apiece of filter paper and draw a pencil line, 1.5 cm above the point
*Use a coin and roll over the spinach leaf 8 to 10 times
*Place the chromatography paper in the cylinder, the point should barely be in the solvent
*Remove when the solvent is about 1 cm from the top of the paper
*mark the bottom of each pigment
I observed that the green from the spinach leave moved up the paper once the solvent was in it. Each pigment were different colors. They went from a lime greenish, to a darker green, to a dark yellow, to a yellow, and finally to a yellow/orangish.
Chromatography helps to separate and identify pigments. In the lab the solvent moved up the paper through capillary action. As the solvent moves up the paper, it takes the substances that are dissolved in it as well. Therefore the pigments are different, they are at different rates. The lines on the paper show where the pigment changes.
Pigments in Photosynthesis: Plants have chlorophyll's which has oxygen and nitrogen in it. Chlorophyll a is the main pigment in photosynthesis in plants. It's a reaction of photo systems. Carotenoids protect photosynthetic system from damaging effects of UV rays. Plants absorb everything except green in the light spectrum which is why we see green.
How does temperature effect the rate of photosynthesis in spinach leaves?
Hypothesis: I think the hotter the temperature is, the slower the leaves will grow.
*Put 1000 mL of water in a beaker
*Add 2 Grams of baking soda and soap in the beaker and stir for one minute
*Punch 20 holes in spinach leaf (Holes will be the disks that determine the rate of photosynthesis)
*Fill 2 separate beakers with 8 mL of the baking soda
*Place one beaker on hot plate for 15 seconds (Heat at 35 degrees c)
*Place other beaker on room temperature surface
*Remove plunger from syringe & fill with 20 mL of baking soda
*Add plant disks to the solution and then replace plunger
*Turn syringe right side up
*Push air out of syringe by pressing on plunger
*Evacuate tissue several times (plug the tip with your finger & draw the plunger to
*Push and pull syringe until all the disks have sunk, take plunger out & dump disks into the two beakers (Make sure the beaker on the hotplate has reached 35 degrees c *No warmer*)
*10 disks in 35 degrees c beaker, 10 disks in room temp beaker (disk should sink, and rest on bottom)
*place the beakers under the lamp (make sure they have the same light intensity & distance)
*Record using timer, the time it takes for each leaf disk to float
Calculate the average for the disks rising time
Interphase is the beginning of the process. In interphase the cell grows and copies its chromosomes in order to prepare for cell division. There are different stages in interphase. In the G1 phase the cell grows. In the S phase the cell continues to grow as it copies its chromosomes the chromosomes are replicated in this sub-phase. In G2 it continues to grow to prepare for cell division. In the M phase the cell divides. This process is repetitive. In this video it shows the chromosomes just being there (out of order and just there) and then it showas that the chromosomes are replicated.
This shows prophase. The chromosomes are more structure than before. The chromatin fibers are put together and the nuclear envelope begins to disappear. When this happens the DNA shortens and thickens and the centrioles move to the poles. The duplicated chromosomes are shown. In Prometaphase the nuclear envelope in disappearing. and the chromosomes begin to move toward the middle of the cell.
Metaphase is a long process which lasts about 20 mins. In this phase the chromosomes line up at the center so they can prepare for separation in the next phase (anaphase). The two sister chromatids are pulled apart during anaphase (short phase), The spindle fibers are what pulls the chromatids apart. The spindle fibers is what pulls the sister chromatids away from each other.
In the last phase, telophase, two daughter nuclei begins to form. the nuclear envelopes reappear. There are now two new daughter cells!
The video says that the signal is sent from the axon terminals, but it is sent from the nucleus and then out the axon terminals.
The signal is sent from the cell and out through the axon terminals... The axon carries impulses away from the cell body of the neuron. The myelin sheath surrounds the axon in neurons. The cell body is what sends the signal and the signal goes through axon terminals. When it goes through the axon terminals it is released and tells hormones what to do.
In a fight or flight type of situation epinephrine (adrenaline) is released into the blood stream. At the surface of its target cells, it binds to the B-adrenergic receptor which spans the plasma membrane. The intracellular portion of the receptor is bound to a G protein. When epinephrine is not present the G protein is not active. The binding of the hormone (epinephrine) to its receptor causes it to be active. Since the target cels would be different in different types of situations, a different reaction would occur. Different cells can do different things and travel to different places, since this is the case when epinephrine comes into play the reaction will not always be the same. For example the calcium ions would cause the muscle cells around the sweat glands to contract which would cause sweat to come out of the gland. The sweat gland doesn't actually do anything, it's the cells around it which is given signals and being told what to do by the signal transduction pathway. In another scenario, when hair rises on the skin because the person is afraid it is caused by the muscle around the hair follicles, this would be
The nucleus has DNA which is changed to RNA by RNA polymerase. The mRNA travels out of the nucleus, to the ribosomes and instructs the ribosome to make a protein. The codons determine which protein it is. The Golgi apparatus sorts and packages the proteins once they are made.